- ItemFormacja chrześcijańska katolików świeckich w świetle nauczania Kościoła Współczesnego. Studium teologicznopastoralne(Wydawnictwo KUL, 2010) Fiałkowski, MarekModern times are characterized by an increase in the importance of lay people. This results from a new perception of the world in all its dimensions. In this perspective lay people have been noticed as the main architects of the earthly reality. We observe a similar phenomenon in the Church, where a majority of members are lay Catholics. This indicates a special role that they have to fulfill in the life and development of the Church. The revival of the theology of the laity is the Second Vatican Council’s great achievement. Its fruit is restoring lay Catholic’s dignity and their role resulting from the fact that they belong to the community of God’s People. By restoring their subjective character of being in the Church, the value of their salutary activity in the Church and in the world has been recognized. Christian formation of lay Catholics seems to be a particularly important question. It is the foundation of a full involvement of those people in the life and mission of the Church. A lay man, formed according to the Church’s teaching, may avoid on the one hand passivity, and on the other undertaking actions typical of the clergy and consecrated people that are incompatible with his own vocation in the Church and in the world. Taking into consideration the importance of this problem for the Church, as well as the contemporary civilization transformations that on the one hand emphasize the significance of the laity in the development of the contemporary world, and on the other they result in uncertainty, a sense of being lost, and a loss of the Christian memory and heritage, undertaking the problem of Christian formation seems topical and justified. The aim of the present dissertation is an attempt to work out a contemporary conception of formation of lay Catholics. The subject of the work may be expressed in the question: What model of formation of lay Catholics do we find in the teaching of the contemporary Church? The theological-pastoral research that has been conducted up till now is in a way undertaken on the margin of general theological research connected with theology of the laity. Also, often fragmentary studies are encountered that concern different dimensions of this issue. However, there is still no comprehensive study of formation of lay Catholics that would take into consideration the contemporary teaching of the Church. Formation may be defined as activity aspiring to shape the consciousness, convictions and attitudes that make believers able to live a Christian life, according to the recognized vocation. Its aim is to shape a mature personality, to promote Christian life that is in conformity with one’s vocation, and to prepare one to realize his or her mission resulting from the nature of Christianity and of the Church (see Declaration on Christian Education 2; Christifideles Laici 57). Formation is a multi-aspect process comprising the human, spiritual, intellectual and apostolic dimensions, and at the same time it is an integral activity (see Christifideles Laici 60), harmoniously developing all the branches of human life. Moreover, it is also self-formation, which indicates consciously influencing one’s own development that lasts throughout one’s whole life (Christifideles Laici 63). In Chapter I the theological foundation is presented, on which Christian formation of lay Catholics is based. Sacraments, participation of lay Catholics in the common priesthood and charismas that are the foundation of formation are discussed here. In Chapter II the aims are presented that the contemporary Church’s teaching sets for the formation of lay Catholics. What is meant here is mainly the realization of the vocation of lay Catholics, their participation in the Church’s mission, and the integrity of the spiritual and lay walks of life. Chapter III contains a description of the milieus where Christian formation of lay Catholics is carried out. The contemporary Church’s teaching emphasizes the fundamental and irreplaceable role that the family plays in this field. Apart from that, it indicates the Church, Catholic schools and universities, and religious associations as places where this formation takes place. Chapter IV discusses the dimensions of Christian formation. First human formation is presented, that is treated as the foundation of integral formation. Next, spiritual formation is presented that has a privileged place in the life of a believer. Also, intellectual and apostolic formation have been presented, that enable lay Catholics to carry out apostolic tasks, being totally committed to this work. In the contemporary Church’s teaching we find an exhausting presentation of the formation of lay Catholics. It takes into consideration contemporary conditions and theological foundations, aims and milieus, in which the process of formation of the laity takes place. The issue of formation of lay Catholics encounters numerous obstacles resulting from dynamic changes occurring in the world. They make a man’s life complicated, and also make realization of his vocation difficult. Hence, it seems important to show general principles so that individual solutions could be introduced on their basis. Christian formation, as the documents of the Church define it, is always the formation of a person. It is carried out most efficiently as result of the personal influence. Avoiding the extreme and dangerous tendencies occurring in contemporary conceptions of education the Church is in favor of the personalistic approach to the formation of lay Catholics. Hence it rejects the instrumental approach to man, that treats him as a passive recipient of formation activities. It also does not accept the attitude of refraining from any influence, or suggesting a system of values to the individual being formed, as it sometimes is treated as an attack on freedom, dignity and tolerance. In the process of Christian formation various educational circles take part. The teaching of the contemporary Church ascribes the fundamental educational significance to God the Father, who through the gift of Christ and the Holy Spirit is the first and most perfect Educationist. All other milieus of formation, employing the educational means and methods that are characteristic for them, have to take into consideration God’s pedagogical activity. In the process of Christian formation the basic significance is ascribed to the family. Its effect on the man cannot be overestimated; and in the situation when the family for some reason cannot carry out its educational tasks, it is hard to replace it with something else. In the light of this fact the care that the Church exercises over the institutions of marriage and family is well understood. On the strength of the mandate received from Christ the Church makes efforts to enable believers to receive such a formation that will allow them to live a life concordant to the vocation they got from God, and to achieve the eternal life. An important role in this process is also played by schools and universities with their whole potential for formation, as well as by religious associations. The latter ones are looked at by the Church with a lot of hope as the circles where Christian formation seems to be realized in a way that is adequate for the mentality of the modern man. If Christian formation is to be efficient, it has to be permanent, as there is a danger that the process can be reduced to children and youths only. Indeed, the period of reaching adulthood should be considered especially important from the point of view of education, but one may not forget that also an adult still has to develop, and the above-mentioned educational efforts will prove efficient only when they become self-education. Christian formation has to be versatile and comprise all dimensions. It should be a formation that is internally consolidated, uniting different aspects in itself and with each other. Albeit the teaching of the contemporary Church describes various dimensions of Christian formation, it always stresses that the formation must be integrated and that it must not omit or emphasize too strongly any of the mentioned aspects. The postulate of the integrated and comprehensive formation is connected with the necessity of planning it well and properly preparing the formatters. Hence having a certain model of formation that is based on Christian anthropology is important. The model has to be confronted with the conditions and situation in which the contemporary man finds himself. This latter one does not have a determining character, but it allows a wise and realistic preparation of a proper program of formation. The point of departure for undertaking the process of Christian formation of lay Catholics is accepting a definite model of it that is connected with the truth about the man and his vocation, as well as a realistic interpretation of the situation in which people living in the present conditions find themselves. The issue of Christian formation of lay Catholics is undertaken in numerous documents issued by the Magisterium of the Church concerning the laity. Significant elements of such formation can also be found in statements that refer to the formation of the clergy and consecrated people. Applying the directives contained in them to formation of the lay has to take into consideration their identity and their specific vocation, and avoid blurring the differences, which leads to confusion in the Church community. It seems that working out one Church document that would gather all the elements of which Christian formation of lay Catholics consists would be advisable. Such a synthesis could prevent one from having the impression of a certain disproportion between the interest in and the number of publications concerning the formation of priests and the formation of lay people Translated by Tadeusz Karłowicz
- ItemOsoba i środowisko. Studia teologiczno-ekologiczne(2019) Wyrostkiewicz, Michał
- ItemEucharystia w życiu duchowym błogosławionego Karola de Foucauld(Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, 2019) Kiełb, DominikThis publication is an attempt to show the role of the Eucharist in the spiritual life of Blessed Charles de Foucauld. First of all, this mystery of the Holy Mass shaped his spiritual life and specific attitudes he adopted, which seem to be extremely current. This fact prompted the author to reflect more deeply on Karol’s internal life, which resulted in the subject of this work: The Eucharist in the spiritual life of Blessed Charles de Foucauld. The biography of Blessed Charles de Foucauld is presented in Chapter 1. It is implied in terms of his reference to the sacrament of the Eucharist. In this way it was shown that in the life of Blessed Karol, which can be divided into three periods, the Mass became a place of growth in holiness. Chapter 2 deals with the theological and spiritual specificity of understanding the mystery of the Eucharist. Karol de Foucauld experienced its many dimensions, among which the principal were: the mystery of sacrifice, feast and communion. This experience of the Eucharist was derived from the teaching of the Church. The last chapter closes the work points to the fruits of the Eucharist. These are specific things that Blessed Karol took in his own life. Among them, he particularly accepted the attitude of adoration, poverty, service and love of neighbour. The author hopes that this work will allow noticing and emphasize the role of the Eucharist in spiritual life. The Holy Mass is the source from which everything flows and to which everything goes.
- ItemCele pracy charytatywno-socjalnej w Kołach Caritas na wsi i w mieście(Biblos, 2010) Kiciński, AndrzejW artykule zostały opracowane cele i obszary pracy charytatywnej oraz socjalnej na wsi i w mieście. Klasyczne badania socjologiczne prowadzone przez W. Piwowarskiego na KUL-u ukazywały zasadniczą różnicę poziomu życia i działalności osób żyjących na wsi i w mieście. Dziś kolejne badania potwierdzają to zróżnicowanie. W działalności Kół Caritas ważne są cele. To wyróżnia działalność Caritas od innych organizacji, które często odrzucają cele lub posiadają fałszywą koncepcję celów. Zasady wypływające z Ewangelii wyznaczające cele działania, w pewien sposób chronią działalność Kół Caritas przed ukierunkowaniem nadmiernie pragmatycznym, wyłącznie socjologicznym, intelektualistycznym, woluntarystycznym, czy nastawieniem, że wszystko można rozwiązać ludzkimi siłami. Realizacja celów Caritas uwarunkowana jest czynnikami miejsca i czasu. Z tego powodu nie ma uniwersalnej formy działalności na wszystkie czasy, ale konieczne jest przystosowane do określonych warunków wsi i miasta.
- ItemPosłannictwo kapłana(Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, 2018) Góźdź, KrzysztofAutor przypatruje się obrazowi kapłaństwa, zwłaszcza temu, który wyłania się z myśli papieża Benedykta XVI (Josepha Ratzingera). Kapłan jest jednocześnie pasterzem owiec i częścią owczarni; jest nauczycielem chrześcijan i tak samo ich współuczniem; jest sługą wierzących i jednocześnie współsługą. W kapłaństwie możemy zobaczyć zarówno pewne podporządkowanie, jak i jednoznaczne włączenie we wspólnotę. Oczywiście istotę kapłaństwa stanowi przepowiadanie wiary i sprawowanie sakramentów, które nie dzieje się na sposób prywatny, lecz jest zawsze repraesentatio Christi i repraesentatio Ecclesiae. Pierwowzór kapłaństwa widnieje w samym Jezusie Chrystusie, arcykapłanie, który „przeszedł przez niebiosa” (Hbr 4,14); który „nie sam siebie okrył sławą” (Hbr 5,5); który „stał się sprawcą wiecznego zbawienia” (Hbr 5,9); który „zawsze żyje, aby się wstawiać za nami. Takiego bowiem potrzeba nam arcykapłana: świętego, niewinnego, nieskalanego, oddzielonego od grzeszników, wywyższonego ponad niebiosa” (Hbr 7,25 n.); który „stał się pośrednikiem lepszego przymierza” (Hbr 8,6); który „złożył Bogu z siebie samego jako nieskalaną ofiarę [...]. I dlatego jest pośrednikiem Nowego Przymierza” (Hbr 9,14-15). Do tego prawzoru możemy dodać praktyczną wskazówkę św. Piotra: „Paście stado Boże, które jest przy was, strzegąc go nie pod przymusem, ale z własnej woli, jak Bóg chce; nie ze względu na niegodziwe zyski, ale z oddaniem; i nie jak ci, którzy ciemiężą gminy, ale jako żywe przykłady dla stada” (1 P 5,2-3).