Między „narracją” a „psychologią”. Obecność „Boskiej Komedii” Dantego i „Fausta” Goethego w języku muzycznym Liszta

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Franz Liszt was a Romantic musician: a virtuoso pianist, music critic, an admirer of literature and philosophy, and a rebel, who could not accept the ways of the world. As a composer he took a lot from the richness of the music, the literature, the fine arts, and the philosophy of the 19th century. In his compositions he transformed his ideas into a new musical language (using all compositional means, such as the construction of a musical motive, tonality, instrumentation, articulation, volume or musical form) and opened new ways for the development of music. Literature was very important in Liszt’s life, as evidenced by his collections of books in Weimar and Budapest and by his letters, in which he commented on the works he had read. Throughout his life, Liszt read a lot, but some of the great number (more than 240 titles) of the works he was familiar with were more important than the other. The books which had the greatest influence on his work include The Divine Comedy by Dante and Faust by J.W. Goethe. Two of Liszt’s works (Après une lecture de Dante, fantasia quasi sonata and Eine Faust-Symphonie) show two aspects of the influence literature can have on music: “narration” and “psychology”. Both works show how dominant literary themes may become in music, especially by a composer who saw literature as a source of a revival of music. An analysis of these works may help us see how Liszt changed the contemporary language of music, introducing such phenomena as atonality, impressionism or hybrid forms. It should be emphasized that Liszt understood a programme as an inspiration influencing the entire work, rather than a literary pretext for music – an accusation often made against works representing the idea of programme music, such as those by Hanslick or Brahms. The programme is considered another dimension of a musical work, which can be analysed in terms of absolute music. The changes in Liszt’s musical language are rooted in literature and agree with the Romantic idea of the correspondence of arts, understood as intertwining and mutual inspiration of the arts.
Kody kultury. Interakcja, transformacja, synergia, red. H. Kubicka, O. Taranek, Wrocław 2009, s. 155-167