Lament opatowski. Rozważania o genezie i treściach ideowych

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Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II
In the transept of the collegiate St Martin Church in Opatów there is a Renaissance wall tomb monument to Chancellor Krzysztof Szydłowiecki (died 1532). Into the tomb a relief commonly called The Opatów Lament is introduced. Among researchers the view is dominant that it shows people who belonged to the Chancellor’s circle, and who, having received the news about his death, manifest their sorrow and profound grief. However, such an interpretation is doubtful. Interpreting the iconographic program is difficult because of the lack of direct models or imitations, both in Polish and European sepulchral art, as well as of source documents concerning the tomb. Research into the formal origin of the tomb that has been conducted until now was to a large extent determined by the iconographic interpretation of the work. Identification of the subject as sorrow manifested by a crowd of people directed the researchers’ attention to the scenes of “laments” occurring commonly in ancient, medieval and Renaissance sepulchral art. But against this background the Opatów Lament is distinguished by its original conception, and the similarities are only superficial. The Opatów relief does not show - as it has been thought up till now - a crowd manifesting their grief caused by Chancellor Krzysztof Szydłowiecki’s death. Such objects as a desk, sheets of parchment, writing instruments that may be seen in the relief direct our attention towards the iconography of the Chancellor’s Office that started being formed at the beginning of the 16th century. We may assume that in all probability Szydłowiecki is presented here, surrounded by his loyal associates, which is indicated by the presence and the number of dogs lying down under the table. The subject of the relief is probably connected with some tragic political event, which is shown by the sadness prevailing in the group. This conjecture seems to be endorsed by a fragment of the work Genealogia atque familia ducum Radivilonum published in 1603 on the initiative of the Chancellor’s grandson Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł “Sierotka”. It contains a description of Krzysztof Szydłowiecki’s despair caused by the news that Muslim troops captured Rhodes. We may assume then that the Opatów relief shows the sorrow of the Chancellor, famous for his anti-Turkish views, and of his circle, at the news of a defeat of a Christian army.
Lament opatowski, Krzysztof Szydłowiecki, ikonografia, sztuka sepulkralna, sztuka renesansowa, sztuka polska, The Opatów Lamen, iconography, sepulchral art, renaissance art, Polish art
Studia nad sztuką renesansu i baroku, T. XI: Tradycja i innowacja w sztuce nowożytnej, red. I. Rolska, K. Gombin, Lublin 2012, s. 283-307