Browsing Wydział Medyczny / Faculty of Medicine by Title
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- ItemA clean and simple method for deprotection of phosphines from borane complexes(Walter de Gruyter, 2017) Demchuk, Oleg M.; Jasiński, Radomir; Strzelecka, Dorota; Dziuba, Kamil; Kula, Karolina; Chrzanowski, Jacek; Krasowska, DorotaSimple, efficient, clean, and stereospecific protocols of protection of phosphorus atom with borane and deprotection from the borane complexes of the tertiary phosphines in mild conditions are reported. The proposed protection/deprotection reactions tolerate a range of functional groups and lead to pure products with excellent yield with no need for application of chromatographic or crystallisation purification procedures. For the first time mechanisms of the reactions of phosphine protection and deprotection have been studied based on experimental kinetic data as well as quantumchemical calculations, which allows designing reaction conditions suitable for a given substrate.
- ItemA General Phenomenon of Spontaneous Amplification of Optical Purity under Achiral Chromatographic Conditions(MDPI, 2019) Demchuk, Oleg M.; Pietrusiewicz, Kazimierz Michał; Borkowski, Mariusz; Strzelecka, Dorota; Kielar, Katarzyna; Kicińska, Wioleta; Karevych, Sergei; Jasiński, RadomirThis work explores the behavior of chiral compound mixtures enriched in one of the enantiomers whilst a typical chromatography on the achiral stationary phase is employed. The influence of several factors, such as the eluent composition, ratio of the compound to the stationary phase, and the initial enatiomeric purity of the compound used on the distribution of the enantiomers in the collected chromatographic fraction, was studied. The obtained results indicate that the phenomenon of Self Disproportionation of Enantiomer (SDE) occurred in all cases, and some of the collected fractions got higher optical purities than the initial one. Thus, achiral column chromatography could be applied in some cases as the simplest approach for chiral purification. Based on the experimental results and DFT calculations, an alternative concept explaining the SDE phenomenon was proposed. Due to its generality and simplicity, SDE may also be responsible for the formation of the first chiral non-racemic compounds on the early Earth.
- ItemA Quantum-Chemical DFT Approach to Elucidation of the Chirality Transfer Mechanism of the Enantioselective Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction(Hindawi, 2017) Demchuk, Oleg M.; Jasiński, Radomir; Babyuk, DmytroThe DFT calculations of the simplified model of the asymmetric Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reaction were performed at the M062x/LANL2DZ theory level at first. It was found that enantioselective reactions mediated by the palladium complexes of chiral C,P-ligands follow a four-stage mechanism similar to that proposed previously as one of the most credible mechanisms. It should be underlined that the presence of substituents in the substrates and the chiral ligand at ortho positions determines the energies of possible diastereoisomeric transition states and intermediates in initial reaction steps. This suggests that, in practice, a sharp selection of theoretically possible paths of chirality transfer from the catalyst to the product should have a place and, therefore, the absolute configuration of the formed atropisomeric product is defined and can be predicted.
- ItemA representative of arylcyanomethylenequinone oximes effectively inhibits growth and formation of hyphae in Candida albicans and influences the activity of protein kinases in vitro(Elsevier, 2018) Masłyk, Maciej; Janeczko, Monika; Demchuk, Oleg M.; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Golczyk, Hieronim; Sierosławska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna; Martyna, Aleksandra; Kubiński, KonradIn this study, we applied various assays to reveal new activities of phenylcyanomethylenequinone oxime-4-(hydroxyimino) cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene](phenyl)ethanenitrile (4-AN) for potential anti-microbial applications. These assays demonstrated (a) the antimicrobial effect on bacterial and fungal cultures, (b) the effect on the in vitro activity of the kinase CK2, (c) toxicity towards human erythrocytes, the Caco-2 cancer cell line, and embryonic development of Zebrafish. We demonstrated the activity of 4-AN against selected bacteria and Candida spp. The MIC ranging from 4 µg/ml to 125 µg/ml proved effective in inhibition of formation of hyphae and cell aggregation in Candida, which was demonstrated at the cytological level. Noteworthy, 4-AN was found to inhibit the CK2 kinase with moderate potency. Moreover, at low concentrations, it did not exert any evident toxic effects on human erythrocytes, Caco-2 cells, or Zebrafish embryos. 4-AN can be a potential candidate as a novel drug against Candida infections.
- ItemA straightforward, environmentally benefcial synthesis of spiro[diindeno[1,2‑b:2′,1′‑e]py ridine‑11,3′‑indoline]‑2′,10,12‑tri ones mediated by a nano‑ordered reusable catalyst(Nature Research, 2021) Demchuk, Oleg M.; Fathi, Mahsa; Naimi-Jamal, M. Reza; Dekamin, Mohammad G.; Panahi, LeilaA library of new spiro[diindeno[1,2-b:2′,1′-e]pyridine-11,3′-indoline]-2′,10,12-trione derivatives has been prepared in an efficient, one-pot pseudo four-component method mediated by a reusable heterogeneous nano-ordered mesoporous SO3H functionalized-silica (MCM-41-SO3H) catalyst. Excellent yields, short reaction times, as well as convenient non-chromatographic purification of the products and environmental benefits such as green and metal-free conditions constitute the main advantages of the developed synthetic methodology. The obtained fused indole-indenone dyes would be of interest to pharmaceutical and medicinal chemistry. Furthermore, due to their sensitivity to pH changes, they could be used as novel pH indicators.
- ItemAddenum to the description of Steinernema jollieti Spiridonov, Krasomil-Osterfeld & Moens, 2004(The Russian Society of Nematologists, 2012-11-14) Skrzypek, Henryk; Kazimierczak, Waldemar; Kreft, Anna; Spiridonov, Sergei; Mráček, ZdeněkAdditonal morphological data are provided for Steinernema jollieti Spiridonov, KrasomilOsterfeld, Moens, 2004. A light and scanning electron microscopy were used to particularize taxonomically important characters missing in the first decsription. The GS% and SW% indices are provided for males. The distribution of genital papillae on male tail is illustrated with SEM images. Structure of female tail and vulvar area are decsribed for females of the first and second generation. The relationships of S. jollieti with other steinernematid feltiae/kraussei group species are discussed.
- ItemAntifungal Agent 4-AN Changes the Genome-Wide Expression Profile, Downregulates Virulence-Associated Genes and Induces Necrosis in Candida albicans Cells(MDPI, 2020) Martyna, Aleksandra; Masłyk, Maciej; Janeczko, Monika; Kochanowicz, Elżbieta; Gielniewski, Bartłomiej; Świercz, Aleksandra; Demchuk, Oleg M.; Kubiński, KonradIn the light of the increasing occurrence of antifungal resistance, there is an urgent need to search for new therapeutic strategies to overcome this phenomenon. One of the applied approaches is the synthesis of small-molecule compounds showing antifungal properties. Here we present a continuation of the research on the recently discovered anti-Candida albicans agent 4-AN. Using next generation sequencing and transcriptional analysis, we revealed that the treatment of C. albicans with 4-AN can change the expression profile of a large number of genes. The highest upregulation was observed in the case of genes involved in cell stress, while the highest downregulation was shown for genes coding sugar transporters. Real-time PCR analysis revealed 4-AN mediated reduction of the relative expression of genes engaged in fungal virulence (ALS1, ALS3, BCR1, CPH1, ECE1, EFG1, HWP1, HYR1 and SAP1). The determination of the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) showed that the combination of 4-AN with amphotericin B is synergistic. Finally, flow cytometry analysis revealed that the compound induces mainly necrosis in C. albicans cells.
- ItemBacteria from the midgut of common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha L.) larvae exhibiting antagonistic activity against bacterial symbionts of entomopathogenic nematodes: isolation and molecular identification(MDPI, 2020-01-16) Skowronek, Marcin; Sajnaga, Ewa; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Kazimierczak, Waldemar; Lis, Magdalena; Wiater, AdrianThe mechanisms of action of the complex including entomopathogenic nematodes of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis and their mutualistic partners, i.e., bacteria Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, have been well explained, and the nematodes have been commercialized as biological control agents against many soil insect pests. However, little is known regarding the nature of the relationships between these bacteria and the gut microbiota of infected insects. In the present study, 900 bacterial isolates that were obtained from the midgut samples of Melolontha melolontha larvae were screened for their antagonistic activity against the selected species of the genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus. Twelve strains exhibited significant antibacterial activity in the applied tests. They were identified based on 16S rRNA and rpoB, rpoD, or recA gene sequences as Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Citrobacter murliniae, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Chryseobacterium lathyri, Chryseobacterium sp., Serratia liquefaciens, and Serratia sp. The culture filtrate of the isolate P. chlororaphis MMC3 L3 04 exerted the strongest inhibitory effect on the tested bacteria. The results of the preliminary study that are presented here, which focused on interactions between the insect gut microbiota and mutualistic bacteria of entomopathogenic nematodes, show that bacteria inhabiting the gut of insects might play a key role in insect resistance to entomopathogenic nematode pressure.
- ItemBradyrhizobia associated with Laburnum anagyroides, an exotic legume grown in Poland(Springer, 2020) Sajnaga, Ewa; Jach, Monika ElżbietaWe isolated 18 rhizobial strains from root nodules of a leguminous shrub Laburnum anagyroides (common laburnum) grown in Southeast Poland as an exotic plant. With the use of BOX-PCR fingerprinting, the isolates were clustered into 2 main groups and one separate lineage, which was congruent with the ITS-RFLP results. The phylogenetic trees constructed based on 16S rRNA and combined atpD, dnaK, glnA, and recA gene sequence data separated the representative strains into three evolutionary lineages within the Bradyrhizobium jicamae supergroup, with Bradyrhizobium algeriense and Bradyrhizobium valentinum as the closest relatives. The nodA and nifH gene phylogenies proved that the L. anagyroides symbionts carry a symbiotic gene variant known as Clade IV, representing the symbiovar retamae. Phenotypic characteristics of the isolates and reference strains are also reported. Our study of the rhizobia nodulating L. anagyroides growing in Poland complements earlier few findings on the symbiotic associations of this Genisteae species.
- ItemCharakterystyka nicieni wyizolowanych z pędraków chrabąszcza Melolontha sp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)(Instytut Ochrony Roślin - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, Polskie Towarzystwo Ochrony Roślin, 2012-06-15) Kreft, Anna; Kazimierczak, Waldemar; Sierpińska, Alicja; Skrzypek, Henryk; Skrabucha, Anna; Dybała, Magdalena; Dźwierzyńska, MonikaCelem badań była charakterystyka nicieni porażających pędraki chrabąszcza Melolontha sp. w warunkach naturalnych. Pędraki chrabąszcza były zebrane na terenie nadleśnictw Krasnystaw, Kozienice, Opoczno i Brzeziny, na powierzchniach różniących się warunkami świetlnymi, wilgotnościowymi i temperaturowymi. Identyfikację gatunków przeprowadzono metodą sekwencjonowania fragmentów DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) oraz metodami morfologicznymi przy zastosowaniu skaningowego mikroskopu elektronowego i mikroskopu optycznego z kontrastem interferencyjno-różnicowym. Uzyskane wyniki wykazały, że pędraki były porażone przez Diplogasteroides magnus oraz Koerneria sp. i Rhabditis sp. Większość zainfekowanych przez nicienie pędraków została zebrana na powierzchniach zadrzewionych, czyli tam, gdzie powierzchnia gleby była dobrze ocieniona, a wilgotność najwyższa.
- ItemCholinesterase inhibitors isolated from bilberry fruit(Elsevier, 2014) Demchuk, Oleg M.; Borowiec, Kamila; Szwajgier, Dominik; Targoński, Zdzisław; Cybulska, Justyna; Czernecki, Tomasz; Malik, AgnieszkaCholinesterases (ChEs) are key enzymes in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A growing body of evidence suggests that plants deliver compounds able to inhibit ChEs (e.g., huperzine A, galanthamine, and physostigmine), thus playing a beneficial therapeutic role in the treatment of AD. Screening for cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) in selected fruits and vegetables showed that extract prepared from bilberry fruit effectively inhibited the activity of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase. The purification of ChEIs from bilberry fruit followed by HPLC-UV, FT-IR, NMR, and LC–MS demonstrated that the studied compounds were derivatives of chlorogenic and benzoic acids. These results confirm that bilberry fruit may serve as a useful source of ChEIs, leading to the attenuation of memory deficit caused by AD.
- ItemComparative nanopore sequencing-based evaluation of the midgut microbiota of the summer chafer (Amphimallon solstitiale L.) associated with possible resistance to entomopathogenic nematodes(MDPI, 2022-03-15) Sajnaga, Ewa; Skowronek, Marcin; Kalwasińska, Agnieszka; Kazimierczak, Waldemar; Lis, Magdalena; Jach, Monika; Wiater, AdrianRoot-feeding Amphimallon solstitiale larvae and certain other scarab beetles are the main soil-dwelling pests found in Europe, while entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) have been used as a biocontrol agent against these species. Our study provides the first detailed characterization of the bacterial community of the midgut in wild A. solstitiale larvae, based on the nanopore sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. In the whole dataset, we detected 2586 different genera and 11,641 species, with only 83 diverse bacterial genera shared by all studied individuals, which may represent members of the core midgut microbiota of A. solstitiale larvae. Subsequently, we compared the midgut microbiota of EPN-resistant and T0 (prior to EPN exposure) individuals, hypothesizing that resistance to this parasitic infection may be linked to the altered gut community. Compared to the control, the resistant insect microbiota demonstrated lower Shannon and Evenness indices and significant differences in the community structure. Our studies confirmed that the gut microbiota alternation is associated with resistant insects; however, there are many processes involved that can affect the bacterial community. Further research on the role of gut microbiota in insect-parasitic nematode interaction may ultimately lead to the improvement of biological control strategies in insect pest management.
- ItemEfektywność porażania larw chrabąszcza majowego (Melolontha melolontha L.) przez entomopatogeniczne nicienie(Instytut Ochrony Roślin - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, Polskie Towarzystwo Ochrony Roślin, 2011-06-15) Kreft, Anna; Skrzypek, Henryk; Kazimierczak, Waldemar; Lech-Pituch, Ewelina; Skrabucha, AnnaExperiments done and presented below aimed at proving that applied species and Polish strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be used to reduce the number of Melolontha melolontha. Invasive larvae of Steinernema arenarium Bys, S. arenarium Lub, S. feltiae Rap, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Sie, H. megidis Pla, H. megidis Lub i H. megidis Pla, H. megidis C3 were used in the experiments as biocontrol agents against the larvae L1, L2 and L3 of M. melolontha. The experiments were done at 20°C, in 25 ml boxes filled with pasteurized (3 h at 70°) and air-dried soil. Pathogen doses were 100 IJ/insect. The result showed that susceptibility of M. melolontha to EPNs depends on the insect's developmental stage. Larvae L1 were the most susceptible. S. arenarium Bys and H. megidis strains were more effective in infecting M. melolontha larvae than S. feltiae Rap and H. bacteriohora Sie.
- ItemEffectiveness of infection of Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) larvae by entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema sp. and Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditida)(Wydawnictwo UMCS, 2004-06-15) Kreft, Anna; Skrzypek, Henryk; Kazimierczak, WaldemarThe purpose of the present studies was to evaluate the susceptibility of Cameraria ohridella larvae to infection by entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema sp. and Heterorhabditis sp. in laboratory conditions. The experiments were done at the temperatures 20 ◦C and 25 ◦C with the use of three doses of the pathogen, namely 5, 25 and 50 nematodes/insect. The results showed that Cameraria ohridella larvae were susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic nematodes. Out of two strains of entomopathogenic nematodes used in the studies, the one that was more effective in infecting Cameraria ohridella at the temperature 20 ◦C was Steinernema sp., while at the temperature of 25 ◦C Heterorhabditis sp. infected the insects more intensively. Results of the experiments showed that with lower doses of invasive larvae of nematodes (5 larvae/insect, 25 larvae/insect) Steinernema sp. PIS81 was a more pathogenic strain towards Cameraria ohridella as compared to Heterorhabditis sp. PIH81.
- ItemEfficient Oxidative Resolution of 1-Phenylphosphol-2-Ene and Diels–Alder Synthesis of Enantiopure Bicyclic and Tricyclic P-Stereogenic C-P Heterocycles(MDPI, 2020) Demchuk, Oleg M.; Pietrusiewicz, Kazimierz Michał; Koprowski, Marek; Drzazga, Zbigniew; Parcheta, Renata; Łastawiecka, Elżbieta; Justyniak, Iwona1-Phenylphosphol-2-ene 1-oxide is effectively resolved by L-menthyl bromoacetate to afford both SP and RP enantiomers of 1-phenylphosphol-2-ene 1-oxide on a multigram scale. The resolved 1-phenylphosphol-2-ene oxide has been found to undergo face-selective and endo-selective cycloadditions with a series of acyclic and cyclic dienes to produce enantiopure P-stereogenic C-P heterocycles of hexahydrophosphindole and hexahydrobenzophosphindole as well as phospha[5.2.1.02,6]decene and phospha[5.2.2.02,6]undecene structures. Conversions of these cycloadducts to the fully saturated heterocyclic systems as well as to their P (III), P = S, P = Se and P-BH3 derivatives have been demonstrated to occur with retention of configuration and preservation of configurational homogeneity at P. A perplexing case of stereomutation at P during reduction of a tricyclic β-hydroxy phosphine oxide by PhSiH3 at 80 °C has been recorded.
- ItemEvolution and taxonomy of nematode-associated entomopathogenic bacteria of the genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus: an overview(Springer Nature, 2020-01-10) Sajnaga, Ewa; Kazimierczak, WaldemarEntomopathogenic bacteria from the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus are closely related Gram-negative bacilli from the family Enterobacteriaceae (γ-Proteobacteria). They establish obligate mutualistic associations with soil nematodes from the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis to facilitate insect pathogenesis. The research of these two bacterial genera is focused mainly on their unique interactions with two different animal hosts, i.e. nematodes and insects. So far, studies of the mutualistic bacteria of nematodes collected from around the world have contributed to an increase in the number of the described Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus species. Recently, the classification system of entomopatogenic nematode microsymbionts has undergone profound revision and now 26 species of the genus Xenorhabdus and 19 species of the genus Photorhabdus have been identified. Despite their similar life style and close phylogenetic origin, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus bacterial species differ significantly in e.g. the nematode host range, symbiotic strategies for parasite success, and arrays of released antibiotics and insecticidal toxins. As the knowledge of the diversity of entomopathogenic nematode microsymbionts helps to enable the use thereof, assessment of the phylogenetic relationships of these astounding bacterial genera is now a major challenge for researchers. The present article summarizes the main information on the taxonomy and evolutionary history of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, entomopathogenic nematode symbionts.
- ItemFunctional traits of Lactobacillus plantarum from fermented Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. in view of multivariate statistical analysis(Springer, 2018-05-04) Polak-Berecka, Magdalena; Kubik-Komar, Agnieszka; Gustaw, Klaudia; Michalak, Magdalena; Kazimierczak, Waldemar; Waśko, AdamIn the present study, Lactobacillus plantarum strain was isolated and identifid from spontaneous fermentation of Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. We used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean Analysis (UPGMA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to examine the variations in the functional properties of the isolates. Six functional traits were analyzed, i.e., viability at low pH, resistance to lysozyme and to SIF, auto- and coaggregation, and ß-glucosidase activity. The present work is the fist study in which the PCA and UPGMA statistical methods were used together to analyze data obtained from the same microbiological experiments. This provided information about the similarity of the examined isolates in terms of their functional traits. Additionally, the level of the analyzed functional traits within the particular groups of isolates was shown. The presented approach is the basis for choosing isolates that are most closely related to the reference strain isolated from pickled cabbage.
- ItemGradual disapperance of vacuolated enterocytes in the small intestine of neonatal piglets(Kraków: Polish Physiological Society, 2007) Skrzypek, Tomasz; Valverde Piedra, Jose Luis; Skrzypek, Henryk; Kazimierczak, Waldemar; Biernat, Marzena; Zabielski, RomualdThe unique feature of enterocytes in newborn mammals is the presence of an apical canalicular system (ACS) leading to production of large vacuoles, important for colostral macromolecule uptake. The vacuolated fetal-type enterocytes (VFE) enable transfer of colostral and milk proteins from the intestinal lumen across the epithelium without loosing their biological activity. First VFE are observed in the pig and lamb fetuses in the second trimester of pregnancy, located at the upper part of villi in the proximal region of the fetal small intestine and subsequently in the middle and distal regions. After birth the VFE are replaced with enterocytes lacking ACS. The present study aimed to investigate the depletion of VFE in the small intestine in the sow reared pig neonates during the first postnatal weeks using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM analysis demonstrated the gradual disappearance of vacuolated enterocytes in time. VFE remained in the jejunum for a few days after birth, whereas in the duodenum single VFE were present only at birth. In the proximal jejunum, the VFE were localized in the upper part of the villi, and disappeared until the day 3 of life. VFE were present in the mid and distal jejunum, and diminished gradually until day 14 of life. By the day 21 of life, the vacuolated cells were not observed neither in the jejunum nor ileum. In conclusion, morphology analysis of pig small intestinal mucosa suggests that replacement of fetal type vacuolated enterocytes is resumed within 21 days after birth.
- ItemGreen in water sonochemical synthesis of tetrazolopyrimidine derivatives by a novel core-shell magnetic nanostructure catalyst(Elsevier, 2018) Demchuk, Oleg M.; Maleki, Ali; Rahimi, Jamal; Wilczewska, Agnieszka Z.; Jasiński, RadomirA green approach for the one-pot four-component sonochemical synthesis of 5-methyl-7-aryl-4,7-dihydrotetrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic esters from the reaction of 2-cyano-guanidine, sodium azide, various aromatic aldehydes and methyl or ethyl acetoacetate in the presence of a catalytic amount of Fe2O3@SiO2-(CH2)3NHC(O)(CH2)2PPh2 as a new hybrid organic–inorganic core–shell nanomagnetic catalyst is described. This is the first design, preparation, characterization and application of the present nanomaterial and also the first ultrasound irradiated synthesis of the biologically and pharmaceutically important heterocyclic compounds in water as a green solvent. This novel sonocatalysis/nanocatalysis protocol offers several advantages such as high yields, short reaction times, environmentally-friendly reaction media, easily isolation of the products, simple preparation, full characterization and recoverability of the nanocatalyst by an external magnet and reusing several times without significant loss of activity.
- ItemGum arabic/gelatin and water-soluble soy polysaccharide/gelatin blend films as carriers of astaxanthin - a comparative study of the kinetics of release and antioxidant properties(MDPI, 2021-03-28) Kowalczyk, Dariusz; Łupina, Katarzyna; Kazimierczak, WaldemarPolymer blending and incorporation of active substances offer a possibility of generation of novel packaging materials with interesting features. Astaxanthin is one of the most powerful antioxidants. Hence, in this study, water-soluble AstaSana astaxanthin (AST) was incorporated into 75/25 gum arabic/gelatin (GAR75/GEL25) and water-soluble soy polysaccharides/gelatin (WSSP75/GEL25) blend films in different concentrations (0, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%). Microscope images showed good compatibility between the polysaccharides and GEL. Basing on time required for 50% release, the WSSP-based film exhibited an approximately four-fold slower release rate (t50% = 65.16–142.80 min) than the GAR-based film (t50% = 14.64–34.02 min). This result was mainly ascribed to the slower dissolution of the WSSP-based carrier. The faster release rate of the GAR-based films resulted in stronger antioxidant activity (quarter-scavenging time (t25%ABTS) = 0.22–7.51 min) in comparison to the WSSP-based films (t25%ABTS = 0.91–12.94 min). The increase in the AST concentration was accompanied by gradually reduced solubility and the release rate. It is possible that the increasing number of starch granules (from the AST formulation) acted as a dissolution blocking agent. In general, the WSSP75/GEL25 film displayed the most linear (the Zero-order similar) release profile. So, this carrier has potential for release of AST at a quasi-constant speed.