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- ItemMotywacja moralna młodzieży. Psychologiczne badania studentów(Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, 1974) Kornas-Biela, DorotaThe essential aim of the present studies was to answer the question: ’’What is the opinion of senior students about moral duties, considering a particular type of motivation?”. The testee w as placed in a hypothetical m oral situation and ordered to determine the degree of preference of three triads of norms taking into consideration personological, deontological and utilitarian motivation. The ratings w ere presented on the scale of the degree of acceptance of the behaviour norms, ranging from 0 to 100. In order to determine the degree of preference for each of the motivations, the testee had to compare pairs of norms: n1 with n2; n1 with n3; n2 with n3. The comparison resulted in three global proportional indices of preferences completing to a hundred, since the testee was to give them for all these situations in which he considered accomplishment of the particular activity necessary. The analysis of the experimental data concerns 150 senior students from five higher schools in Lublin (30 students from each school). A general survey of the medial values of the degree of the motive preference indicates that in the main young people give priority to personological and deontological motivation over utilitarian one. As far as personological motivation is concerned the testees seem to value most the norm: ”to help a person being in danger of losing his life”. The norm also achieved the highest degree of acceptance in the deontological version. In the group of norms of utilitarian motivation the students pronounced themselves in favour of ”to act justly as then one has a clear conscience”. When considering the problem of interdependence between the motivation ratings and the type of higher school it was found out that students of all higher schools equally preferred norms of deontological motivation. It means that preference of this motivation is independent of the character of the higher school in which the young people are intellectually formed. The type of higher school proved however a significant determinant of the norm preference in respect of personological and utilitarian motivation. The highest degree of preference of utilitarian motivation could be observed in students from agricultural school, while medical students revealed lower degree in the ratings of personological motivation than university students. Besides the analyses of the results proved that the sex variable is not a significant determinant of the ratings of the norm preference in respect of the motivation type.
- ItemGłówne problemy rozwoju i wychowania moralnego dzieci niewidomych(Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, 1975) Kornas-Biela, Dorota
- ItemPsychologiczno-pedagogiczne aspekty postaw moralnych współczesnej młodzieży(Lubelskie Towarzystwo Naukowe, 1976) Kornas-Biela, DorotaThe following problems have been discussed in this article: 1. The review of the used research methods on moral attitudes. 2. The reason of differences between research results on moral attitudes of contemporary youth. 3. The general characteristics of the youth’s moral domain on the basis of the positive and negative attitudes found by psychological researches. 4. The factors of moral development stressing these ones which allow to step from the heteronomous to autonomous moral period. 5. Actual unfavourable circumstances for forming correct moral attitudes of contemporary youth (physiological factors, demographical and civilizing, social, psychological and pedagogical ones). 6. The postulates that should be used for increasing the efficacy of educational influence.
- ItemUwagi o statusie metodologicznym psychologii rewalidacji(Polskie Towarzystwo Higieny Psychicznej, 1976) Kornas-Biela, DorotaThe author explains the adoption of a term „psychology of revalidation” so as to define the branch of science dealing with psychophysical deviants. The very idea of work with mentally deficient people provides the best explanation of this term, i.e. the sense of treatment, rising of the standard of efficiency, restoring both physical and mental health within the framework of the existing limitations (L. validus — strong, effacacious, convalescent). Subsequently the author presents the branches of psychology of revalidation and problems related to it. Next the author shows the mutual relations of the psychology of revalidation with other branches of psychology especially with clinical psychology, medicine, special education, sociology, law and technics. In the conclusion the author points to the pertinence of integration of all of these branches into one compact system, into single science of an interdisciplinary character which by way of generalizing the findings of constituent sciences would encompass the entire notion of psychophysical deficiencies.
- ItemZ badań nad pojęciami moralnymi w psychologii polskiej(Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, 1977) Kornas-Biela, Dorota
- ItemO niektórych czynnikach rozwoju moralnego dzieci niewidomych(Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, 1978) Kornas-Biela, DorotaIn the upbringing of blind children it is important to know the factors which condition their moral development, particularly the specificity of the situation of the loss of sight, so that one may influence the moral profile of a blind child by manipulating these factors. The article shows that in this development as important role is played by such factors as: (1) the very fact of a loss of a possibility of receiving visual information; (2) features of the disability, i.e. time, degree and way in which the sight was lost: (3) disorders of the central nervous system and, in particular, intellectual defects, changes in higher emotions on organic basis, deficiencies in strength, mobility and equilibrium of nervous processes; (4) the attitude of the normal clear-sighted people, in particular of the children of the same age as the blind child; (5) atmosphere in the family and the attitudes of the parents, as well as the type of educational methods applied most frequently, e.g. punishment and explanations; (6) institutional education of blind children; (7) forms of child's own activities/- such as games, self-educational tendencies in the youth period. It has been strongly emphasized that the factor which creates greatest difficulties in the moral development of the blind child is not the very lack of sight and resulting cognitive limitations, but the social consequences of blindness, especially the wrong attitudes of the parents of the blind child. Apart from the factors creating difficulties in the socio-moral development of the blind child, in blindness there are also useful factors for the shaping of its moral-philosophical reflection, deepening of inner life, training virtues of character and strong will (advantageous in view of the requirements of social life), and of a mature moral attitude, including the acceptance of blindness and a positive, relation to the world of normal people.
- ItemŚwiadomość istnienia norm moralnych (badania rozwojowe niewidomych i widzących dzieci od 8 do 16 lat)(Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, 1980) Kornas-Biela, Dorota
- ItemRyzyko wolności. Sprawozdanie z I Międzynarodowego Kongresu Opieki Duszpasterskiej i Poradnictwa w Edynburgu(Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, 1980) Kornas-Biela, Dorota; Biela, Adam
- ItemZ badań nad świadomością moralną dzieci niewidomych i widzących w wieku szkolnym(Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, 1981) Kornas-Biela, Dorota
- ItemPochodzenie i zmienność norm moralnych w świadomości dzieci niewidomych i widzących(Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, 1981) Kornas-Biela, DorotaThe author discusses the results of the study made on 103 blind children and 97 children with sight, aged 8, 12, and 15, in the light of the cognitive theory. The children were interrogated with the questionnaire constructed by the author, which contained 3 problems: 1. the origin of moral norms in the individual consciousness of the child (Where does he know from what is good or wrong?) and in the social consciousness (What is the source of people’s knowledge of good and wrong?); 2. the time of the existence of moral norms (Since when is it so that people are obliged to do certain things but are forbidden to do some other things?); 3. the possibility to modify moral norms (Is it possible to modify them, why, who can do that, is the child himself able to do that, will the new standards be better, and when can they be regarded as better than the previous ones?). On the basis of the investigations the following regularities have been found out: 1. Between the ages 8 and 12 the role of the direct personal influence (family, school-teachers) and the role of the supernatural influence, as a source of moral norms, diminish in the consciousness of children, whereas the role of the non-personal influences, especially children’s own activity, increases. 2. The age of 12 is characterized by the intellectual growth of the moral consciousness of blind children and children with sight, and by the increase of a sense of autonomy in creating standards. 12-year-old children discover “the power” of mind, the possibility of forming principles based on experience and on predicting the effectiveness and consequence of social activities, and the possibility of checking the sense of norms in practice. 3. Blind children in distinction to those with sight, develop more quickly and more intensely the conviction that people (the developmental leap between the ages 8 and 12) as well as the child himself (the developmental leap between the ages 12 and 15), have the possibility of using their own intellectual activity and experience in recognizing and formulating moral standards. 4. Irrespective of age 80 per cent of children with sight regarded the standards as “old”, whereas in the group of blind children the conviction of a very distant beginning of the normative dimension of human life was steadily growing with the age, and all 15-year-old blind children accepted the view that moral norms and standards existed since long ago. 5. The war is a critical point for 13 per cent of the examined children and they relate the origin of the present norms of behaviour with the war. 6. The number of children who consider moral norms to be so closely connected with the fact of the existence of the world and people that they relate the origin of. the norms to the genesis of human race, significantly increases between the ages 8 and 15. The conviction that moral norms make a necessary, constituent element of human existence and exist as long as human life on earth, develops more quickly and stepwise among the blind between the ages 8 and 12, while among children with sight the development of that conviction is harmonious and gradual. 7. While growing up, the children start to differentiate between the eternity of norms and their unchangeability. In their consciousness norms become eternal, but at the same time, according to 'the opinion of the half of subjects, it is possible to' modify them in their concrete form. 8. More than 40 per cent of 15-year-old subjects, both blind and with sight, regard the present norms as invariable which means that a sense of autonomy with respect to operational thought is reached by the child earlier than with respect to moral judgement [cf. Piaget 1932]. 9. Blind children felt less free to modify the norms of behaviour than those with sight. 10. Children with sight had a greater knowledge as regards the possibilities of making changes in the present system of moral norms and standards, whereas the blind ones displayed greater ability of understanding the depth and richness of moral situations and the conditioning of human interference in the functioning of the norms. The frequent use of “conditional” type of answers by the blind, indicates their ability to take into consideration various points of view on moral issues, their objective attitude towards socio-moral reality, and their quicker development of hypothetical and deductive thinking. 11. Among children with sight the development of moral consciousness is harmonious, while among the blind the acceleration of development is often noticed between the ages 8 and 12, after placing them in new educational environment i.e. the institution for blind children.
- ItemPsychologiczne koncepcje rozwoju moralnego(Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, 1983) Kornas-Biela, Dorota
- ItemRozwój motywacji moralnej dzieci niewidomych w wieku szkolnym(Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, 1983) Kornas-Biela, DorotaIn the study on the development of moral consciousness of children attention was focused among other problems on the reasons justifying the rightness of morally good activities. During interviews made with 103 blind children and 97 nonblind children, the two groups being representative of three levels of age: from 8 to 9 years of age, 12-13 years of age and 15-16 years of age, the author tried to find out the way in which children independently verbalize the reasons accounting for the necessity of good behaviour, and which motives of moral improvement the children prefer in the situation of the hypothetical choice. The results obtained pointed out that independently of the relatively constant motive-and-aim-value hierarchy being under formation along with the development of the child concrete circumstances of a given situation strongly condition the preferred kind of motivation. Indeed, the blind expressed as a motive of morally good behaviour the principle of reciprocity, utilitarian attitude directed towards avoidance of punishment and reception of award and egotistic attitude aiming at satisfaction of the need of respect which increases along with the development of the child as well as the need of good opinion, acceptance and affiliation on the side of the environment more often than the non-blind. Thus, with the blind children there dominates an external attitude stronger than with the non-blind. The external attitude can be explained as valuation of activities as desirable through the prism of their own objectives and needs as well as subjection of emotional reactions and activities to the behaviour of people in their environment. Conditions of the development and education of blind children, i.e. living conditions in the boarding house, as well as the inability to see itself hinder the process of creating an apparatus of inward self-observation and readiness to pro-social activities with blind children. The paper includes some hypotheses of the interpretation of the differences found out during the study, One, for example, points out to the deprivation of psychophysical needs, blindocentrism, the feeling of separateness and difference from the non-blind, the feeling of uncommitted suffering, low self-assessment and the feeling of smaller value, inadequate attitude of parents and disadvantageous elements of living in the boarding house. It turned out that morality for a blind man has a functional character. Morally good activity can have a compensatory role, or a role of a mediator in the process of satisfying the needs and in the process of realizing the basic aims. It can also be introduced to act in the process of restoring the feeling of one’s own value, social utility and acceptance by the environment. Thus, in the process of education of blind children one should motivate them to concentrate on reaching their goals and competence in the moral field which as well as the intellectual sphere is accessible for the blind on an equal level with the children who can see.
- ItemRozwój dziecka nienarodzonego(Kuria Prowincjonalna 00. Franciszkanów w Warszawie, 1984) Kornas-Biela, Dorota
- ItemStruktura i funkcjonowanie świadomości moralnej (przegląd literatury)(Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, 1984) Kornas-Biela, DorotaThe paper presents opinions of different authors on the concept of moral sense (e.g. tardy, accompanying reflective consciousness, the consciousness of self, present, and potential consciousness), and assessments of its structure (e.g. A. Gołąb). Next, selected elements of moral sense are presented: knowledge, moral concepts (concepts of obligations, norms, standards as well as those concerning one's own self — one s own moral features, one’sown real, social and ideal „I“), opinions, views, assessments and moral beliefs, sensitivity and the sense of moral obligations, conscience, value directions and preferential arrangement of moral norms. The author also points out to the mutual relationships between moral sense and such extra-cognitive elements of moral sphere as moral sense and feelings, moral attitudes, personal pattern and ideal and moral character. The problem of the dynamizing and regulating influence of moral sense on the sense of one’s own value, opinion of oneself, self-criticism and behaviour is shown. The author discusses the role of verbalization in moral sense’s development; the question raised is to what extent the development of a child’s language competence can effect the formation of its moral sense (special attention is paid to the role of the verbal contact in the formation of moral sense among blind children). The research on moral sense’s function in a development aspect are divided into nine problem groups. The groups are formed in the shape of bipolar dimensions which characterize different aspects of moral sense: e.g. intentionality, the concept of moral rule, moral punishment, the sense of obligation, from heteronomy to autonomy. A survey of papers on the subject is made.
- ItemFunkcjonowanie świadomości moralnej w aspekcie rozwojowym (przegląd literatury)(Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, 1985) Kornas-Biela, DorotaFür eine der wesentlichen Eigenschaften der sittlichen Entwicklung wird sein Sequenzcharakter angesehen. Das bezieht sich auch auf das sittliche Bewusstsein. Der Artikel enthält eine Übersicht der Forschungen zur Entwicklung des sittlichen Bewusstseins und erfasst sie mittels des von T. Lickona (1976) vorgeschlagenen Modells. Dieses Modell umfasst 9 Aspekte des sittlichen Bewusstseins, und die Entwicklung eines jeden wird mit Hilfe bipolarer Dimensionen bestimmt, die den Übergang von der Heteronomie zur Autonomie charakterisieren. Das angenommene Schema der Literaturbearbeitung ist natürlich willkürlich und stellt einen Reflex des Euroamerikanischen Gesichtspunktes vom Menschen dar, der die sittlich reife Person als freies, rationales und autonomes Individuum sieht. Es ist möglich, dass in anderen Kulturkreisen, bei einer anderen Sicht des Menschen, andere Auffassungen von der sittlichen Entwicklung und dem Kriterium der reifen Person auf diesem Gebiet funktionieren.
- ItemRozwój psychofizyczny dziecka przed urodzeniem(Ośrodek Dokumentacji i Studiów Społecznych, 1987) Kornas-Biela, Dorota
- ItemWczesna pomoc psychopedagogiczna rodzinie dziecka z upośledzeniem umysłowym(Redakcja Wydawnictw KUL, 1988) Kornas-Biela, Dorota
- ItemKształtowanie się przywiązania matki i dziecka w prenatalnym okresie jego rozwoju(Polskie Towarzystwo Psychologiczne Oddział w Lublinie, 1992) Kornas-Biela, Dorota
- ItemKierunki badań w psychologii prenatalnej (Sprawozdanie z kongresu Międzynarodowego Towarzystwa Psychologii Prenatalnej 18-21 września 1986, Bad Gastein, Austria)(Polskie Towarzystwo Psychologiczne Oddział w Lublinie, 1992) Kornas-Biela, Dorota
- ItemPsychologiczne aspekty kryzysu ekologicznego w dziedzinie prokreacji(Lubelskie Towarzystwo Naukowe, 1993) Kornas-Biela, DorotaEcology has centered primarily upon the effects that man’s actions have on the subhuman world. Too little attention has been directed to human ecology, especially to human reproduction. It has barely started that people pursuing more natural' life style in our highly technical society realize that their reproduction has been attacked by environmental pollution and by modern mentality. Many artificial practices connected with women’s health insidiously adopted in recent decades should be reappraised. An ecologically sensitive human sexual equilibrium is only possible in the context of natural conception regulation, natural birth and natural breast-feeding. The exploitation of women’s body by reproductive technology, contraception, abortion, medicalisation of pregnancy and delivery must be stopped, because it causes many physical and psychological harms. We must seek, as professionals, natural, safe and holistic approach to human sexuality and reproduction, especially to mothers womb - our first "home" during prenatal stage of life.